Inter Faculty <p class="ttl"><strong>INTER FACULTY</strong></p> <p>In our modern world where all phenomena, whether physical or cultural, are so complex and so inextricably bound up with each other, researchers in human and social sciences are being increasingly called upon to work across the board towards finding solutions.</p> <p style="margin-top: 1em;">It has become urgent to create new ways of thinking and methods of work. It is no longer sufficient to be master of a single discipline, and in the present context it is more and more pressing to imagine and create new fields of research concerning civilization, society, and the environment.</p> <p style="margin-top: 1em;">With these considerations in mind, along with its online publication <em>Inter Faculty</em>, the <em>Inter Faculty Education and Research Initiative</em> (<abbr><em>IFERI</em></abbr>) was established with the objective of creating a new framework for research which would enable and promote a transdisciplinary research environment across institutions and research centres, regardless of affiliation or home country.</p> <p style="margin-top: 1em;"><em>Inter Faculty</em> is a forum for the resulting study and research activities. A forum for reflection and for discussion reaching beyond the boundaries of a given discipline, open to the academic community as a whole.</p> <p style="margin-top: 1em;">We welcome contributions and reviews in all areas of the human and social sciences.</p> Institute for Comparative Research in Human and Social Sciences, University of Tsukuba (Japan) en-US Inter Faculty 1884-8575 <p>All items published by this journal are copyright of the original authors who grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> <div style="font-style: italic;"> <p>This journal is copyright:</p> <p>Inter Faculty © 2010 Institute for Comparative Research in Human and Social Sciences, University of Tsukuba.<br> ISSN:1884-8575.<br> All Rights Reserved.</p> </div> Foreword <p>The pandemic this year reminded us more than ever that we live in ‘VUCA’, volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity. Many things that used to be taken for granted up until a year ago crumbled abruptly and globally. The pandemic struck many aspects of our societies such as public health, economy and social bonds, thereby uncovering the vulnerability of the modern society. Universities are no exception to this.</p> <p>One nation by itself cannot tackle these global challenges, nor can these challenges be solved by a single discipline. Triple helix collaboration across academia, industry and government beyond all borders is imperative to achieve a sustainable new normal. That is precisely why, for Tsukuba Global Science Week 2020, we organized a symposium (entitled Creating a Post-Corona Society: Cities and Universities in Collaboration) so that academia and local government could discuss how to work together against the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> Jun IKEDA Copyright (c) 2020 Jun IKEDA 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 10 vii ix 10.15068/00162386 About Resonance <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>This introduction to the special issue of Inter Faculty, volume 10, takes up the theme of resonance in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic and its ensuing societal shifts. It gives a short commentary of the individual studies presented here, placing them within the wider consideration of the planet-wide turning point facing humanity in relation to the natural world.</p> </div> </div> </div> Saburo AOKI Copyright (c) 2020 Saburo AOKI 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 10 xi xix 10.15068/00162387 ‘In the Covid’: Some Reflections for Our Resonant Situation <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>In a series of loosely connected reflections, the author attempts to situate the COVID-19 emergency relative to a more general sense of crisis in the early twenty-first century. French thinkers Bernard Stiegler and Michel Deguy are deployed to grasp the ecological character of this moment. The language and figures of confinement and de-confinement are considered with pleasure and curiosity throughout. The real conditions of a region much less affected by the virus than many others and the challenges and paradoxes of locality-in-emergency that are implied by this fortunate state of affairs are brought into relation to the broader world situation. Navigating the social changes underway and to come is briefly evoked, leading to questions of culture, leisure and education in conclusion.</p> </div> </div> </div> Christopher ELSON Copyright (c) 2020 Christopher ELSON 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 10 23 33 10.15068/00162388 La pandémie de 2020 : peur des autres, peur pour les autres ; incertitude et dogmatisme / The 2020 Pandemic: Fear of Others, Fear for Others; Uncertainty and Dogmatism <p class="IFParagraphAbstract"><span lang="EN">The Covid-19 health crisis induced contradictory interhuman behavior: solidarity with others or conversely, mistrust and rejection of others. The same feeling is at the root of both these comportments </span><span lang="EN-US">–</span><span lang="EN">fear: fear of infection and its consequences, fear of others. It is also fear, in the form of aversion to uncertainty, that motivated the partisan dogmatism and irrationalism that flourished during the crisis.</span></p> Thierry MARTIN Copyright (c) 2020 Thierry MARTIN 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 10 35 41 10.15068/00162389 The Anthropocene Turning Point: A New Historicity of Social Relations <p class="IFParagraphAbstract"><span lang="EN-GB">The historical turning point evidenced by the Covid-19 crisis should now lead to a proper name being given to the notion of ‘second modernity’ which, up to the present time, has been defined only in relation to the ‘first modernity. Here, we put forward the thesis that this new definition be the anthropocene, so that following the ‘sociology of modernity’, a ‘sociology of anthropocene’ may become the new framework for analyzing the historicity of contemporary social relations.</span></p> Eric MACÉ Copyright (c) 2020 Eric MACÉ 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 10 43 52 10.15068/00162390 Dissonance: Coexistence with Foreigners vs. Coronavirus Epidemic Countermeasures in Japan <p>Countermeasures against the coronavirus epidemic resulted in a blanket ban on the entry of foreign nationals into Japan, including Japan’s legal foreign residents, resulting in great personal distress to the many people affected. This paper examines how individual people, academic institutions, the business community, as well as Japanese society, were affected by the countermeasures, the government’s (lack of) explanations for the countermeasures, and the impact of these countermeasures on the government’s own declared goals of ‘Internationalization’ and ‘Coexistence with foreigners’. It also touches on the possible legal and long term consequences.</p> Andrej BEKEŠ Copyright (c) 2020 Andrej BEKEŠ 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 10 55 75 10.15068/00162391 Confinement et foule virtuelle : Rationalité médicale et panique collective / Lockdowns and Virtual Crowds: Medical Rationality and Collective Panic <p class="IFParagraphAbstract"><span lang="EN-US">There have been many epidemics in the past, but the Covid-19 outbreak is the first worldwide epidemic, or more precisely pandemic, to have been subject to continuous media coverage. What impact did this media flow have on our behaviour, both individually and collectively?</span></p> <p class="IFParagraphAbstract"><span lang="EN-US">In many countries moreover, Italy and France in particular (the two countries of reference for this analysis), lockdown orders forbade all public gatherings and suddenly, the streets, the squares, the public places in general were completely deserted. So if, as is generally accepted, a crowd is understood as being a gathering of human beings in a given space (a square, a stadium, …) with a common purpose, usually celebrations or protests, the lockdowns we experienced, causing geographic and social atomization, would, therefore, seem to be an exact antithesis. Nonetheless, a crowd, albeit a virtual crowd, united by fear in the face of an unprecedented threat relentlessly relayed by the media, did indeed exist. Moreover, this ‘crowd that was not a crowd’ was governed by certain behaviours specific to physical crowds. </span></p> <p class="IFParagraphAbstract"><span lang="EN-US">In this paper, I would like to discuss these behaviours and their causes. </span></p> Elena BOVO Copyright (c) 2020 Elena BOVO 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 10 77 86 10.15068/00162392 The ‘World After’: On the Pandemic and the Anthropocene <p class="IFParagraphAbstract"><span lang="EN-US">This paper questions the link between the present pandemic and the ecological crisis. To do so, it tackles what has been an important issue in the recent discussion in Europe: what will the world look like ‘after’ the Covid-19 crisis? It argues that the crisis of the Anthropocene, linked to climate change, is indeed what will define our future. Yet it shows that the temporal frame in which this new world has to be imagined will defy our current understanding of politics. In this sense, the very idea that there is an unproblematic ‘after’ to the current epidemic crisis is anything but obvious.</span></p> Thomas BRISSON Copyright (c) 2020 Thomas BRISSON 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 10 87 91 10.15068/00162393 What Does the (In)ability to React to the Covid-19 Coronavirus Reveal About Our Societies? <p class="IFParagraphAbstract"><span lang="EN-US">The many questions raised by the novel coronavirus pandemic go far beyond medical issues. Everything that was self-evident recently became impossible after the global spread of the virus. Despite the declarative EU emphasis of solidarity, the novel coronavirus pandemic clearly demonstrated the limits of solidarity and opened doors to nationalism. This crisis reveals all the anomalies of globalisation and the capitalist system in its currently dominant version of neoliberalism. The present crisis is indeed posing a serious challenge to the existing state system and capitalist economy. Evidence in support of this argument may be found in the surprising generosity of governments in many countries. Former enthusiastic advocates of austerity measures have come to realise that the legitimacy of the system is being tested at this time. </span></p> Aleš BUČAR RUČMAN Copyright (c) 2020 Aleš BUČAR RUČMAN 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 10 93 99 10.15068/00162394 Reflections on Personal Experiences of Migration During the Current Pandemic in the Context of Psychotherapeutic Communication <p class="IFParagraphAbstract"><span lang="EN-US">Migration, even when for good, involves processes of mourning and grief related to the experience of loss, insecurity and discontinuity of identity. In this paper, I bring some observations from my psychotherapeutic work with first generation migrants, young international professionals who live and work in London, to look at the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the experience of being a migrant. I include a clinical case presentation to illustrate how the crisis affected different dimensions of the migrant’s psychic reality - intrapsychic, interpersonal and cultural. I also look at the dynamics of psychotherapeutic work in the context of the current pandemic as an experience of individual and collective grief. </span></p> Irina CHONGAROVA-ARON Copyright (c) 2020 Irina CHONGAROVA-ARON 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 10 101 109 10.15068/00162395 Quo Vadis, University? <p class="IFParagraphAbstract"><span lang="EN-GB">When the new coronavirus induced Covid-19 pandemic spread across the globe in the early spring of 2020, universities around the world closed down and moved quickly to adapt to the ‘new reality’ by relying on modern technology and moving their curricula online. However, these extraordinary circumstances were not taken as an opportunity to reflect on and reform the many ills of the modern university, but rather aimed to secure the status quo and expected the students to accept the new reality of reduced online curricula. At the same time this has, in the author’s opinion, revealed the structural problems of rigid curricula and the lack of much needed flexibility in order to move beyond reproducing instrumentalised knowledge and to reopen the university and its humanities programmes as venues of ‘science in the making’.</span></p> Luka CULIBERG Copyright (c) 2020 Luka CULIBERG 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 10 111 120 10.15068/00162396 The 2020 Pandemic and Cities: London as a Case Study <p class="IFParagraphAbstract"><span lang="EN-US">This article analyses the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic during 2020 on London’s socio-economic structure. After outlining the history of health crises in London during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and the city’s demographic decline and resurgence, it describes the 2020 pandemic’s impact on London’s socio-economic inequalities and the role of home working. Context is provided by describing my own locality and experience while the wider context is discussed through comparison with other highly globalised cities such as Singapore. The article concludes by placing London’s 2020 pandemic within a historical perspective as infections increase after the summer holidays and the beginning of the teaching term.</span></p> John EADE Copyright (c) 2020 John EADE 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 10 121 136 10.15068/00162397 Lessons from COVID-19: Human Solidarity a Third Pillar for TICAD <p class="IFParagraphAbstract"><span lang="EN-US">All through the past seven editions, starting in 1993, the Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD) debates and agendas for action have been guided by two pillar principles, those of Ownership and Partnership. The COVID-19 pandemic, however, has dramatically illustrated the importance of solidarity. Thus, Human Solidarity could well be adopted by TICAD 8 as a third pillar to complement and consolidate the current two pillars of Ownership and Partnership. This new pillar would link back to the concept of Human Security proposed to the UN in 1999 by Japan and made relevant anew by the COVID-19 pandemic. It would also link back to the UN Resolution 56/207 of the 57<sup>th&nbsp;</sup>UN GA of 2001 relative to the proposition of a World Solidarity Fund made by Tunisia in 2001.</span></p> Salah HANNACHI Copyright (c) 2020 Salah HANNACHI 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 10 137 146 10.15068/00162398 Another Time of Renewal: Pandemics, Power, and Knowledge <p class="IFParagraphAbstract"><span lang="EN-US">This commentary </span><span lang="EN-US">first presents a genealogy of pandemics and world orders. Second, it highlights multiple origins of pandemics especially COVID-19 and the Spanish flu. Third, it shows the shortcomings of international organizations such as WHO and sovereignty against a global pandemic. Fourth, it compares the cases of Taiwan and Japan in their responses to COVID-19 and China. Fifth, it discusses the limits of existing knowledge and the exploration of transdisciplinary knowledge to take on the unknown. Finally, after reiterating this commentary, it concludes by drawing attention to the social responsibility of scientists and decision-makers across national borders.</span></p> Joji KIJIMA Copyright (c) 2020 Joji KIJIMA 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 10 147 163 10.15068/00162399 Consequences of COVID-19 on Future Society: Some Reflections from the Higher Education Sector <p class="IFParagraphAbstract"><span lang="EN-US">The COVID-19 pandemic is causing a huge disruption on the way human beings are living and interacting all over the world. The present article is a collection of thoughts on the possible consequences of the pandemic on society and higher education in particular. It is a reflection on the role of higher education in the current context and its potential to shape future society.</span></p> Giorgio MARINONI Hilligje van’t LAND Copyright (c) 2020 Giorgio MARINONI, Hilligje van’t LAND 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 10 165 173 10.15068/00162400 A Chilean Educational Initiative to Mitigate the Impact on Mathematics Learning in Grade 1 Students During the Covid-19 Lockdown / Una iniciativa educativa chilena para atenuar el impacto en el aprendizaje de matemática en estudiantes del grado 1 durante el aislamiento social por Covid-19 <p class="IFParagraphAbstract"><span lang="EN-GB">The social distancing measures that were imposed as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic, led many countries to adopt distance education. In Chile, a group of teachers sought to support children’s education, and with the combined efforts of parents, teachers and administrators took up the challenge of how to help children continue learning in such an adverse environment. To this end, an open-access television program, specifically to support daily math for grade 1 children, was created. The program, which was available on the Internet, comprised fifty-seven video clips based on the official school text and tutor-student interaction. The present paper reports on this initiative and its outcomes.</span></p> Raimundo OLFOS Soledad ESTRELLA Masami ISODA Copyright (c) 2020 Raimundo OLFOS, Soledad ESTRELLA, Masami ISODA 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 10 175 186 10.15068/00162401 The Impact of Covid-19: From a Culture of Teaching Towards a Culture of Learning <p class="IFParagraphAbstract"><span lang="EN-GB">The year 2020 will be remembered for Covid-19 – the period of ‘forced’ critical reflection upon ourselves, others and the society around us. This paper presents the positive and negative practices during this period by focusing on the educational system at the tertiary level where traditional teaching was substituted by e-learning. Based on personal experience and pilot research conducted with the students of South Slavic Studies,</span><span lang="EN-GB">the paper further discusses the advantages and disadvantages of e-learning, paying special attention to the arts. Finally, it is concluded that e-learning will remain one of the educational approaches in future.</span></p> Vesna POŽGAJ HADŽI Copyright (c) 2020 Vesna POŽGAJ HADŽI 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 10 187 200 10.15068/00162402 De Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité aux mots pour dire la pandémie de la Covid-19 / From Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité to the Vocabulary of the Covid-19 Pandemic <p><span lang="EN-US">The Covid-19 pandemic that hit France, and a large part of the world, highlighted the unbearable inequalities that exist within human society and lead us to question the republican motto of Liberty, Equality, Fraternity. Moreover, the speeches by the French government concerning the management of this pandemic further reveal, by the use of certain words or syntagms (confinement, social distancing, barrier gestures), an ideology which, by inference, is also in contradiction with this republican motto. This article aims to articulate the social and the linguistic contexts, and thus to show their ideological </span><span lang="EN-US">coherence.</span></p> Daniel LEBAUD Copyright (c) 2020 Daniel LEBAUD 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 10 203 221 10.15068/00162403 Pandemic in a Globalised World: Slovenian Perspectives <p class="IFParagraphAbstract"><span lang="EN-US">Contributing yet another paper to the myriad of scientific and scholarly articles about the Covid-19 pandemic, this paper presents a short global and local overview of the world situation after Covid-19 from the perspective of Slovenia. It begins with issues where, during the pandemic, global and local meet and proceed with detection and reflection of the situation at the time of writing, i.e. the summer of 2020, when the pandemic is far from being under control, especially in the (wild?) West. Only as much as necessary, the paper presents the Slovenian part of the story: what really matters is to understand the pandemic as global. Medicalisation and state repression are the key issues discussed in the text.</span></p> Rajko MURŠIČ Copyright (c) 2020 Rajko MURŠIČ 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 10 223 233 10.15068//00162404 Quel apprentissage après cette expérience philosophique planétaire ? / What lessons from this planet-wide philosophical experience? <p class="IFParagraphAbstract"><span lang="EN-US">Suddenly, with the radical lockdown of half the planet, our accelerated, interconnected and hypermobile society found itself at a standstill, forced into immobility. This stillness has revealed to us the limits of consumerism, the flaws of a globalization centered on money and power, the blindness of our habits of thought and of the ideologies of progress. We can also see this lockdown as a philosophical experience that encourages us to reflect on the meaning of our lives. The time has come to learn to live in resonance with our world, to rethink, with more lucidity and finesse, our vision of the ‘good life’.</span></p> Ioan ROXIN Copyright (c) 2020 Ioan ROXIN 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 10 235 249 10.15068/00162405 Readers' Forum: A Call for Comments <p>This section is an open forum for discussion between readers and authors. If you would like to submit comments on specific articles and/or open a discussion thread on any of the related themes please send them directly to the editorial board by email, to <code>&lt;interfaculty[at];</code>. Your comments will be posted in this section as soon as they can be reviewed by the Editorial Board.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>要旨<br>本節は読者と著者が議論を交わすための公開討論会です。特定の論文にコメントを寄せたい場合、あるいは、関連テーマについてディスカッションを始めたい場合は、編集部&nbsp;<code>&lt;interfaculty[at];&nbsp;</code>宛に直接電子メールをお送り下さい。お寄せいただいたコメントは、編集委員会の検討を経て、速やかに本節に掲載されます。</p> Saburo AOKI Copyright (c) 2020 Saburo AOKI 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 10