Inter Faculty <p class="ttl"><strong>INTER FACULTY</strong></p> <p>In our modern world where all phenomena, whether physical or cultural, are so complex and so inextricably bound up with each other, researchers in human and social sciences are being increasingly called upon to work across the board towards finding solutions.</p> <p style="margin-top: 1em;">It has become urgent to create new ways of thinking and methods of work. It is no longer sufficient to be master of a single discipline, and in the present context it is more and more pressing to imagine and create new fields of research concerning civilization, society, and the environment.</p> <p style="margin-top: 1em;">With these considerations in mind, along with its online publication <em>Inter Faculty</em>, the <em>Inter Faculty Education and Research Initiative</em> (<abbr><em>IFERI</em></abbr>) was established with the objective of creating a new framework for research which would enable and promote a transdisciplinary research environment across institutions and research centres, regardless of affiliation or home country.</p> <p style="margin-top: 1em;"><em>Inter Faculty</em> is a forum for the resulting study and research activities. A forum for reflection and for discussion reaching beyond the boundaries of a given discipline, open to the academic community as a whole.</p> <p style="margin-top: 1em;">We welcome contributions and reviews in all areas of the human and social sciences.</p> Institute for Comparative Research in Human and Social Sciences, University of Tsukuba (Japan) en-US Inter Faculty 1884-8575 <p>All items published by this journal are copyright of the original authors who grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> <div style="font-style: italic;"> <p>This journal is copyright:</p> <p>Inter Faculty © 2010 Institute for Comparative Research in Human and Social Sciences, University of Tsukuba.<br> ISSN:1884-8575.<br> All Rights Reserved.</p> </div> Foreword Jun IKEDA Copyright (c) 2021 Jun IKEDA 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 11 vii viii 10.15068/0002003280 About Variability, Uncertainty, Complexity and Ambiguity Saburo AOKI Copyright (c) 2021 Saburo AOKI 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 11 ix xvi 10.15068/0002003283 Qualitative Analysis on the Progress and Difficulty of LGBT Politics in Latin America: Focus on Peru Saori ISODA Copyright (c) 2021 Saori ISODA 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 11 19 44 10.15068/0002003286 The Inuit of Greenland: Doing Area Studies on the Compromise between Reciprocity and Utility Minori TAKAHASHI Copyright (c) 2021 Minori TAKAHASHI 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 11 45 62 10.15068/0002003291 Kay AOKI Copyright (c) 2021 Kay AOKI 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 11 63 97 10.15068/0002003292 Atomic Bomb Survivor Testimonies as Sociolinguistic Data: An Approach from Discourse Analysis Ikuko OKUGAWA Copyright (c) 2021 Ikuko OKUGAWA 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 11 99 134 10.15068/0002003293 The Intangibility of the Intangible in Cross-cultural Contexts: Assessing the Value Gaps in Heritage Protection Tinka DELAKORDA KAWASHIMA Copyright (c) 2021 Tinka DELAKORDA KAWASHIMA 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 11 135 152 10.15068/0002003295 A Quantitative Study of Transitive and Intransitive Constructions in Hindi and Japanese <p>Previous studies have suggested that, like Japanese, Hindi displays a preference for intransitive constructions that describe events as spontaneous occurrences over transitive constructions that give prominence to the agent. This study compares the frequency of transitive and intransitive constructions in the two languages by using a Hindi novel and its Japanese translation as a parallel corpus. The results show that not only was there no significant difference in the number of transitive and intransitive constructions, the frequency of transitivity pairs (causative/non- causative pairs) is also similar with both languages using more non-causative pairs. The implication of this finding for errors observed in Hindi-speaking learners of Japanese is discussed.</p> <p>??<br>??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????</p> Anubhuti CHAUHAN Copyright (c) 2021 Anubhuti CHAUHAN 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 11 153 177 10.15068/0002003296 The Experiences of International Students in Japanese Bachelor Programs <p>This study aimed to understand the experiences of international students in Japanese bachelor programs by exploring factors related to their Japanese language proficiency. A total of seventy-nine international undergraduate students responded to the online survey. In the analysis, descriptive and bivariate statistics were performed for all international undergraduate students, including the JEP (Japan-Expert Program) students who had been educated in the Japanese language. In the bivariate statistics, the relation between Japanese language proficiency against demographics, GPA (Grade Point Average), campus life and health status were examined. As a result, the following two points were revealed: i) among all international students, those with lower Japanese language proficiency faced more difficulty in understanding course contents, having part-time jobs, being in the upper grades, and had poorer perceived sleep quality; ii) in JEP students, those with low Japanese proficiency had a lower GPA. Thus, the Japanese language proficiency of international students in bachelor-degree programs is related to their grades, part-time jobs, and sleep quality, especially GPAs in JEP students. To support these students, it is necessary to provide continuous and comprehensive Japanese language education, including lifestyle and learning support, from the time of admission to graduation.</p> <p>??<br>????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????<span lang="EN-US">79</span>????????????????????????????????????????<span lang="EN-US">Japan-Expert</span>??????<span lang="EN-US">JEP</span>????????????????????????<span lang="EN-US">2</span>??????????????????????????????????????????????????<span lang="EN-US">2</span>??????????<br>???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????<br>??<span lang="EN-US">JEP</span>??????????????????????????????????<br>????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????</p> Miho IRIYAMA Keiko SUGIMOTO Copyright (c) 2021 Miho IRIYAMA, Keiko SUGIMOTO 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 11 179 195 10.15068/0002003297 Processing Technologies and Production of Food in the Jomon Period <p>During the Jomon period, which lasted about 13,000 years, a variety of food processing techniques were developed. First of all, there is pottery itself, which was the most basic tool for processing food in the Jomon. Early pottery is thought to have been used for cooking and processing fish, but the number of pottery sherds excavated in the Incipient Jomon is quite limited. The number of pottery shapes increased later on, suggesting that pottery was used for various purposes and times during the Jomon period. As for food processing facilities, we can point to a series of earthen pits in the Kyushu region which are thought to have been smoking facilities, and shell mounds as food processing sites that were typically developed in eastern Japan. Each technology had its diversity depending on the period and region. Although not food itself, salt production using salt-making pottery began in the Late Jomon period. From the Late Jomon period onward, the number of water reservoirs associated with wooden structures used for processing nuts, such as horse chestnuts and walnuts, increased in eastern Japan. Although acorn and nuts had been used since the Early Jomon period, the use of lowland storage pits in the western part of Japan suggests that the use and processing of acorn and nuts changed after the Late Jomon period.</p> <p>??<br><span lang="EN-US">13,000</span>?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????</p> Takamune KAWASHIMA Copyright (c) 2021 Takamune KAWASHIMA 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 11 197 217 10.15068/0002003298 Takashi FURUTA Copyright (c) 2021 Takashi FURUTA 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 11 221 232 10.15068/0002003300 Metaphysics and Metaphysical Poetry in the Eastern Jin Dynasty <p>Sun Chuo comprehensively grasped the three religions of Confucianism, Buddhism and Daoism by using the concept of the Dao as a cord. Therefore, Confucian saints, Buddhist buddhas, and Lao Tzu were considered to be on the same ground as those who mastered the Dao. Moreover, Sun Chuo did not only grasp such metaphysical phases intellectually, but he actually aimed to achieve the metaphysical state himself. And in the end, it became an attempt to fly beyond all relative conflicts, although it first relied on both traditional and foreign ideas. In the literary works written by Sun Chuo, his thoughts based on such multiple religions were lying in the background.</p> <p>??<br>??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????</p> Nozomi WAKU Copyright (c) 2021 Nozomi WAKU 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 11 233 243 10.15068/0002003301 Cooperation between Japanese Linguistics and Japanese Language Education Yu TANAKA Copyright (c) 2021 Yu TANAKA 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 11 245 251 10.15068/0002003302 Development of Japanese Language Learning Content Using Immersive Virtual Reality <p>In recent years, remarkable progress has been made in immersive virtual reality (iVR). However, iVR in Japanese language education (JLE) lags behind education for other languages. In this paper, the author reviews iVR Japanese language learning content that is currently under development. Further, the author argues that in order to collaborate with experts in different fields during the development process, it is necessary to accumulate knowledge in those fields and to consider how to reconstruct such knowledge.</p> <p>??<br>???????????<span lang="EN-US">iVR</span>??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????</p> Hideaki ITO Copyright (c) 2021 Hideaki ITO 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 11 253 260 10.15068/0002003303 A Comparative Study of Blended Learning and Face-to-Face Instruction in University-Level Chinese Language Education Tingjie XU Copyright (c) 2021 Tingjie XU 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 11 261 267 10.15068/0002003304 Archaeology for Disaster Management <p>While the importance of interdisciplinary studies has been recognized recently, each research field is becoming more subdivided. Expertise in the research field must be assured yet, on the other hand, joint research with other research areas can effectively expand the depth and reach of research. Based on my own experience, this paper introduces an example of interdisciplinary study combining archaeology, geology, and geotechnology. I show that this interdisciplinary study has a wider social significance than isolated studies in each research area would have had.</p> <p>??<br>?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????</p> Takamune KAWASHIMA Copyright (c) 2021 Takamune KAWASHIMA 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 11 269 276 10.15068/0002003305