Inter Faculty 2019-02-28T13:33:07+09:00 IF Editorial Board Open Journal Systems <p class="ttl"><strong>INTER FACULTY</strong></p> <p>In our modern world where all phenomena, whether physical or cultural, are so complex and so inextricably bound up with each other, researchers in human and social sciences are being increasingly called upon to work across the board towards finding solutions.</p> <p style="margin-top: 1em;">It has become urgent to create new ways of thinking and methods of work. It is no longer sufficient to be master of a single discipline, and in the present context it is more and more pressing to imagine and create new fields of research concerning civilization, society, and the environment.</p> <p style="margin-top: 1em;">With these considerations in mind, along with its online publication <em>Inter Faculty</em>, the <em>Inter Faculty Education and Research Initiative</em> (<abbr><em>IFERI</em></abbr>) was established with the objective of creating a new framework for research which would enable and promote a transdisciplinary research environment across institutions and research centres, regardless of affiliation or home country.</p> <p style="margin-top: 1em;"><em>Inter Faculty</em> is a forum for the resulting study and research activities. A forum for reflection and for discussion reaching beyond the boundaries of a given discipline, open to the academic community as a whole.</p> <p style="margin-top: 1em;">We welcome contributions and reviews in all areas of the human and social sciences.</p> About Engagement 2019-02-28T13:33:07+09:00 Saburo AOKI <p>Volume 8 of <cite><em>Inter Faculty</em></cite> takes up the theme of Engagement expressed not only in the research studies proper but also in the individual approach taken by each researcher.</p> 2018-08-10T00:00:00+09:00 Copyright (c) 2018 Saburo AOKI Maintaining Identity and Rights of National Minorities: Visibility, Linguistic Landscape of the Slovene Minority in Carinthia 2019-01-05T12:19:44+09:00 Andrej BEKEŠ <div class="abstract" lang="en"><p>This paper deals with the visibility of the autochthonous Slovene minority in Carinthia as one of the crucial factors contributing towards maintaining its identity in the territory of its traditional settlement. The paper focuses on the language of a subset of public signs, i.e., topographical signs, erected by the regional government; a controversial issue that has been exploited for political reasons. In order to elucidate the motivations for this controversy the legal framework concerning national minorities, Article 7 of the <em>Austrian State Treaty</em> being central to it, is examined. Further, the resulting solution of the topographical signs dispute is examined in the light of other areas concerning minority rights as reported in Opinions and Reports under the <em>Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (FCPNM)</em>. Following on, section 2 provides a brief historical background, section 3 presents the findings of FCPNM reports concerning the implementation of bilingual topographical signs, as well as comparing the trends with minority demography and minority policies regarding media and education. Section 4 discusses the issues from section 3, leading to the conclusion in section 5, that the chronic passivity of central authorities regarding obligations based on international treaties, combined with active anti-minority policies supported by the local German-speaking majority, lead to accelerating language and identity shift and thus assimilation of the Slovene minority.</p></div><div class="abstract" lang="ja"><div class="heading">要旨</div><p>本稿ではオーストリア・カリンシア州に固有のスロヴェニア少数民族の存在がどのように目に見える形で現れているかについて論じる。この少数民族の可視性はその居住地域で少数民族のアイデンティティを維持するために、欠かせない要因の一つである。本論考では、カリンシア州政府に政治的に利用されようとした道路標識の一つ、市町村の入り口に立って地名をあらわす標識を巡る論争、およびその背景に焦点を当てる。論争を理解するためにはまず、オーストリア国家条約、その中では特にスロヴェニア系などの少数民族保護に触れる第 7 条に注目する。続いて、地名の標識を巡る論争の解決としてできた結果である二言語併用の標識を、「少数民族保護のための枠組み協定」&lt;Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (FCPNM)&gt; の報告書を基に、オーストリアにおける少数民族保護という文脈で検討する。本稿の第 2 節ではまず歴史的背景を短く紹介してから、第 3 節で、二言語併用の交通標識の設置を巡る FCPNM の報告を検討し、第 4 節では第 3 節で明らかにされた諸事実を考察する。第 5 節で、国際条約や協定から生じる義務に対する、オーストリア中央政府の慢性化した消極的態度と、カリンシア州のドイツ語話者の多数が指示する反少数民族的政策が組み合わさったことにより、スロヴェニア系少数民族において、多数派民族の言語の受容、及びアイデンティティの転換が加速化し、同化が進んでいるという結論に至る。</p></div> 2018-08-10T00:00:00+09:00 Copyright (c) 2018 Andrej BEKEŠ L’invention du genre grammatical au Japon et en Grèce antique / Emergence of Grammatical Gender in Japan and Ancient Greece 2019-01-14T16:08:52+09:00 Irène TAMBA Naomi IDA <div class="abstract" lang="en"><p>This paper explores the translation in Japanese of grammatical gender (masculine, feminine, neutral) stemming from the Dutch language. It took almost a century (1750-1850) for Japanese specialists in Dutch studies to understand grammatical gender. Once this grammatical category was understood, the next step was to transfer such category to the Japanese language. Genders were assimilated to the cultural concepts of <em>yin</em> and <em>yang</em>. From this first semantic classification emerged the grammatical gender category with the discovery of Dutch grammars and literal transposition of Dutch terminology. These two stages can also be found in Greece (from the fifth century BC to the second century AD) during the slow emergence of the grammatical gender in Ancient Greece and the Greek language. Indeed, the Sophists led the foundation of a semantic noun classification from which a morphological category was invented by grammarians. This convergence may lead to the hypothesis of two ordered steps in other cases of emerging grammatical categories, i.e. a semantic step followed by a grammatical stage.</p></div><div class="abstract" lang="ja"><div class="heading">要旨</div><p>本稿は、18 世紀におけるオランダ語の文法的性(男性、女性、中性)の日本語への翻訳の過程を取り上げる。蘭学者が日本語には存在しない文法的性を理解するには約 1 世紀(1750-1850)の時を要した。この文法的性の受容は 2 つの段階を経て行われた。まず、文法的性 masculine gender と feminine gender は、名詞の意味的な分類として、それぞれ中国の陰陽思想に基づき「陽」と「陰」の語を用いて翻訳された。その後、オランダ語文法研究が深まるにつれて、蘭学者が文法的性のカテゴリーをより正確に把握するに至り、オランダ語文法からの借用語(男性、女性、中性)を使用するようになった。同様の過程が、古代ギリシャにおいて 7 世紀にわたり(前 5 -後 2 世紀)徐々に形作られた文法的性にも見られる。ソフィストが意味に基づいた名詞分類の基礎を築き、それをもとに文法家が形態・統語的カテゴリーを成立させた。これらのことから、言語の文法カテゴリーは意味的基盤の上に形成されるという仮説が導かれると言える。</p></div> 2018-08-10T00:00:00+09:00 Copyright (c) 2018 Irène TAMBA & Naomi IDA The Development of Confucian Ethics in the Teachings of Itô Jinsai 2019-01-14T16:10:30+09:00 Marko OGRIZEK <div class="abstract" lang="en"><p>Among the scholars who studied Confucianism in Edo period Japan there were those who devoted their time particularly to the study of Confucian ethics. Itô Jinsai is most often considered as an intermediary between the ideas of the Zhu Xi School, of which he was a critic, and the Sorai School, which in many ways he helped inspire, but also as a proper Confucian ethicist. As interpreting Confucian ethics within the field of comparative philosophy has come a long way recently, I would like to examine Jinsai’s project through the prism of some of the newest proposed readings.</p></div><div class="abstract" lang="ja"><div class="heading">要旨</div><p>江戸時代の日本において儒学を研究した学者の中には、特に儒学道徳に多くの時間を割いた者がいる。なかでも伊藤仁斎は、朱子学を批判し、徂徠学派に影響を与えながらも、両者の思想を結びつけた者として有名である。彼は本義的に儒学道徳者であった。昨今、比較哲学の分野における儒学道徳の研究も少なからず行われるようになってきたが、本論文は最新の研究書を参照しながら伊藤仁斎の思想を考察する。</p></div> 2018-08-10T00:00:00+09:00 Copyright (c) 2018 Marko OGRIZEK Readers' Forum: A Call for Comments 2018-08-10T16:38:53+09:00 Saburo AOKI <div class="abstract" lang="en"><p>This section is an open forum for discussion between readers and authors. If you would like to submit comments on specific articles and/or open a discussion thread on any of the related themes please send them directly to the editorial board by email, to <code>&lt;;</code>. Your comments will be posted in this section as soon as they can be reviewed by the Editorial Board.</p></div><div class="abstract" lang="ja"><div class="heading">要旨</div><p>本節は読者と著者が議論を交わすための公開討論会です。特定の論文にコメントを寄せたい場合、あるいは、関連テーマについてディスカッションを始めたい場合は、編集部 <code>&lt;; </code>宛に直接電子メールをお送り下さい。お寄せいただいたコメントは、編集委員会の検討を経て、速やかに本節に掲載されます。</p></div> 2018-08-10T16:38:53+09:00 Copyright (c) 2018 Saburo AOKI