Language Policy and Linguistic Reality in Former Yugoslavia and its Successor States

Main Article Content

Vesna POŽGAJ HADŽI

Abstract

Turbulent social and political circumstances in the Middle South Slavic language area caused the disintegration of Yugoslavia and the formation of new countries in the 1990s, and this of course was reflected in the demise of the prestigious Serbo-Croatian language and the emergence of new standard languages based on the Štokavian dialect (Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian and Montenegrin). The Yugoslav language policy advocated a polycentric model of linguistic unity that strived for equal representation of the languages of the peoples (Serbo-Croatian, Macedonian and Slovenian), ethnicities (ethnic minorities) and ethnic groups, as well as both scripts (Latin and Cyrillic). Serbo-Croatian, spoken by 73% of people in Yugoslavia, was divided into the eastern and the western variety and two standard language expressions: Bosnian and Montenegrin. One linguistic system had sociolinguistic subsystems or varieties which functioned and developed in different socio-political, historical, religious and other circumstances. With the disintegration of Yugoslavia, the aforementioned sociolinguistic subsystems became standard languages (one linguistic system brought forth four political languages). We will describe the linguistic circumstances of the newly formed countries after 1991 in Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro. We will show that language policies of the newly formed states of former Yugoslavia have encountered many problems, including some elementary issues of standardisation. Finally we conclude that the future will not bring convergence and that language policies will continue to depend on the general political situation in the region.

要旨
中央南スラヴ語圏における社会的・政治的混乱は、ユーゴスラビアの崩壊を招き、1990年代には各新国家が誕生した。結果は、信望の厚かったセルボ・クロアチア語の「死」と、シュト方言を基盤とする各標準語(ボスニア語、クロアチア語、セルビア語、モンテネグロ語)の出現であった。本稿は、歴史的および理論的枠組みの中で、言語統一の多中心的モデルである旧ユーゴスラビアの言語政策、そして諸民族の言語(セルボ・クロアチア語、マケドニア語、スロベニア語)、「民族性」(少数民族)、民族集団等の概念、さらにローマ字とキリル文字の両文字体系の使用を論じる。ユーゴスラビアの73%の人々が話すといわれたセルボ・クロアチア語は東と西のバラエティーと2種の標準方言、ボスニア語とマケドニア語に分割された。つまり、一つの言語体系が社会言語学的には下位体系または変種を持ち、それぞれが違った社会、政治、歴史、宗教などの状況により機能と発展を異にした。ユーゴスラビアの崩壊に伴い、社会言語学的下位体系が各標準語となり、一つの言語体系が四つの政治的言語を生むこととなった。ここではさらに、1991年以降に新しく形成された各国家、クロアチア、セルビア、ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナ、モンテネグロにおける言語状況を描く。最後に、旧ユーゴ地域の諸国家の言語政策がそれぞれに問題を抱え、なかでも標準化に関する基本的な問題を持つことを指摘する。将来において、これら諸言語の近寄りは見込まれず、今後も言語政策は地域の政治情勢に左右されていくことであろう。

Article Details

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Articles
Author Biography

Vesna POŽGAJ HADŽI, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia)

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Vesna POŽGAJ HADŽI

Department  of Slavistics

Faculty of Arts

University of Ljubljana