Reconsideration of the Use of Salt in the Jōmon Period

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Takamune KAWASHIMA

Abstract

Pottery salt production, which appears in the Late Jōmon period, has been studied in terms of its exchange networks and production processes as well as the typology of salt-making pottery. Jōmon salt-making pottery is found on the Pacific coast of eastern Honshū Island. The many sites which contain salt-making pottery sherds are widely distributed through the Kantō Plain, even in inland areas. In most previous studies, the use of salt in the region has been assumed to be related to the preservation of marine products because diverse fishing tools have been uncovered from the southern coast of Lake Kasumigaura, the central area of salt production in the Kantō Plain. However, this scenario cannot explain the wide distribution of salt pottery in the Kantō Plain. As salt production was performed in various places over a wide area, in order to interpret the development of saltmaking in the Jōmon period, it is important to compare Jōmon salt production with other examples of salt production. In this paper, using some ethnographic examples from the New Guinea highlands, I will try to clarify the use of salt, and the reason why salt production developed in the Late Jōmon period.

要旨
縄文時代後期にはじまる土器製塩は、製塩土器形態や編年などとともに、交換や製塩工程について研究が進められてきた。縄文時代の製塩土器は主に東日本の太平洋岸で出土している。関東地方では、縄文時代の汀線付近だけでなく、内陸部にも製塩土器が分布している。先行研究では、土器製塩の中心地である霞ヶ浦沿岸でヤスなどの漁撈具が同時期に発達することから、生産された塩の用途は漁撈にともなう食品保存と関連付けられることが多かった。しかし、この説では内陸部に分布する製塩土器を説明することはできない。縄文時代における製塩の発達を解明するには、世界各地に見られる製塩活動との比較が必要であろう。本稿では、ニューギニア高地における製塩の民族資料との比較を通じて、縄文時代の塩の用途と土器製塩の発達の原因を探る。

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