Classification of Noun-Concluding Sentences from a Syntactic Analysis Perspective

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Hiroko SAWADA

Abstract

This paper discusses the problem of ‘noun-concluding sentences’ (NCS) in modern Japanese and aims to systematize classification based on syntactic analysis. An NCS refers to a noun predicate sentence in which the noun of the predicate requires a modification part and does not have an equivalent relation with the subject. The NCS is a special construction both from a linguistic typology perspective and from a Japanese syntax perspective.


NCS cover a wide range of semantic fields, and several classification systems have been attempted. However, because these classifications in the existing research depend on the lexical meanings of nouns of predicates, the individual categories are considered in parallel to each other, making it difficult to perceive a clear picture of relationships between them. This paper, therefore, focuses on a syntactic view of NCS, and on that basis, proposes the establishment of an NCS classification system.


This paper will attempt to show that NCS can be classified into two main groups: those which can take cognitive subjects as their themes (Type I), and those which cannot take cognitive subjects as their themes (Type II). Type I constructions can be further divided into two patterns based on whether the cognitive subject has a person restriction (Type I-1, I-2). Type II constructions also can be further divided into two patterns, those which take cognitive objects as their themes (Type II-1), and those which do not take any themes (Type II-2). Bringing a syntactic perspective to the classification of NCS constructions has therefore made it possible to see the systemicity between the classes.


要旨
この論文は、現代日本語における「文末名詞文」を取り上げ、構文論的分析に基づく分類の体系化を行うことを目的とする。文末名詞文は、述部の名詞が連体修飾部を必須とし、かつ主題と同値関係を持たない名詞述語文を指し、類型論的に見ても日本語の構文論的に見ても、特殊な構文である。


「文末名詞文」の意味領域は多岐にわたり、従来いくつかの分類が試みられてきた。しかしこれまでの研究の分類は述部の名詞の語彙的意味に依存した分類になっているために、分類項目が並列的で、文類間の関係性が把握しにくいのが現状である。そこで本論文では、「文末名詞文」の構文論的な観点に注目し、「文末名詞文」の分類を立てることを提案する。


本論文では、「文末名詞文」を、認知主体を主題にとることができるもの(I類)と、認知主体を主題にとることができないもの(II類)の大きく2つに分けられることを主張する。さらにI類は、その認知主体に人称制限があるかどうかで2つに分けられ(I-1型、I-2型)、II類は、認知対象を主題に取るもの(II-1型)と、どのような主題も取らないもの(II-2型)にわけられる。このように構文の分類に統語的な観点を持ち込むことにより、分類間の体系性を示すことができる。

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